Polished Concrete: The Complete Guide
More retail, warehouse, and office facilities are opting for polished concrete flooring as an alternative to marble, granite, tile, linoleum, or coated concrete. Even homeowners are catching on to the appeal of these smooth, high-luster floors, which can be stained to replicate the look of polished stone.
IF YOU’RE CONSIDERING POLISHED CONCRETE FLOOR, HERE IS YOUR COMPLETE GUIDE !
Polished Concrete: The Complete Guide
1. Polished Concrete Fundamentals
Polished concrete is concrete that has been processed through a series of mechanically ground “polishing/grinding” steps utilizing professional equipment designed for concrete polishing. This process also includes the use of concrete densifier/hardener which penetrates into the concrete and creates a chemical reaction to help harden and dust proof the surface. During concrete polishing the surface is processed through a series of steps (in general a minimum of 6 grinding steps of processing is considered polished concrete) utilizing progressively finer grinding tools. The grinding tools are progressive grits of industrial diamonds in a bonded material such as metal/hybrid/resin often referred to as diamond polishing pads.
Polished Concrete is a “Green” flooring system and LEED approved.Concrete is not considered polished before 800 grit, and it is normally finished to either the 800, 1500, or 3000 grit level. Dyes designed for concrete polishing are often applied to add color to polished concrete as well as other options such as scoring, creating radial lines, grids, bands, borders, and other designs.
2. Why Polished Concrete
Simply put, a polished concrete floor system transforms a porous concrete floor into a tightened surface, dense enough to keep water, oil, and other contaminants from penetrating the surface.
3. Polished Concrete Process
Currently, the industry breaks down the process of polished concrete into grinding and polishing. Some simply use the word “polishing” for the whole process. Each phase is then broken down into multiple steps, consisting of consecutively finer grit abrasives. Every step is refined to its purest possible form on a microscopic level from one progressively finer abrasive to the next until the desired level of ‘polishing’ is achieved.
During the processes, densifier / hardener is applied that is absorbed into the concrete creating a chemical reaction that makes the concrete more dense and hard.
Recent advances in polishing equipment and techniques has allowed concrete to be ground, honed and polished to a high polish with clarity of reflection and depth. The process is performed with large planetary head machines where the main head rotates in one direction and smaller satellite heads spin in the opposite direction.
The result is a beautiful, durable and efficient surface which eliminates the need for carpets or tile that requires expensive replacement, maintenance and use of harsh cleaning chemicals.
4. Polished Concrete Options & Choices
There are many options available for different Polished Concrete designs. Different Aggregate Exposure, different Clarity of Reflection, and different dyed Color will change the visual aspects and physical characteristics of you polished concrete floor significantly. So know your options and potential outcomes before you make choices.
4.1 Aggregate Exposure
The Aggregate Exposure of the floor represents the amount of aggregate that will be exposed at the surface. Below are the three most common aggregate exposures for polished concrete floors. Consider the needs and functions of your building when deciding whether aggregate exposure is appropriate. Grinding the concrete to expose aggregate may be considered attractive for a commercial space, but it can be unsuitable for a manufacturing space where dropped fasteners need to be easily spotted on the floor.
Light Sand / Cream Finish
The light sand exposure is a ground and polished surface, typically exposing only the sand particles in the concrete floor. This finish is considered a “creamy looking” surface and is the most popular choice for Architectural Ground & Polished floors.
Salt & Pepper Finish
The Salt & Pepper exposure is a ground and polished surface, typically exposing a spattering of fine aggregate in the concrete floor. This finish is most often chosen to give the appearance of an aged surface. Approximate surface cut depth 1/16 inch.
Medium Aggregate Finish
Medium Aggregate exposure typically exposes the greatest amount of medium aggregate in the concrete floor with little or no large aggregate exposure at random locations. Approximate surface cut depth 1/8 inch.
Large Aggregate Finish
Large Aggregate exposure is a more heavily “cut” surface, typically exposing the greatest amount of larger aggregate in the concrete floor. The finish is the most often chosen when the substrate has been seeded with custom aggregate. On some floors including restoration of older concrete there may be limitations to how deeply the floor can be cut. Approximate surface cut depth 1/4 inch.
4.2 Gloss Level
Depending on the diamond grit used to polish a concrete floor, you can achieve different levels of sheen, from matte to a glassy mirror-like finish. Here are the four levels of polishing and the degree of shine you can expect to achieve at each level.
Level 1 (Flat / Ground)
A level 1 ground polish usually can be obtained by stopping below the 100-grit resin bond. When you look directly down at the floor, it will appear somewhat hazy with little if any clarity or reflection.
Level 2 (Satin / Honed)
A level 2 honed polish is obtained by stopping at the 400-grit resin bond, producing a low-sheen finish. When you look directly down at the finished floor and at a distance of roughly 100 feet, you can start to see a slight overhead reflection. This grit level produces a low-luster matte finish.
Level 3 (Semi-polished)
A level 3 polish is achieved by going up to an 800-grit or higher diamond abrasive. The surface will have a much higher sheen than that of level 2 finish, and you’ll start to see good light reflectivity. At a distance of 30 to 50 feet, the floor will clearly reflect side and overhead lighting.
Level 4 (Highly Polished)
This level of polish produces a high degree of shine, so that when standing directly over the surface, you can see your reflection with total clarity. Also, the floor appears to be wet when viewed from different vantage points. A level 4 polish is obtained by going up to a 3,000-grit resin-bond diamond or by burnishing the floor with a high-speed burnisher outfitted with specialty buffing pads.
There are 6 ways concrete is colored:
- Integral – Performed at the time of pour and is considered environmentally friendly.
- Integral by seeding a cement/pigment mixture in the top region during power trowel finishing
- Penetrating Water Based Dyes – Performed during the polishing process and is considered environmentally friendly.
- Penetrating Solvent Based Dyes – Performed during the polishing process and is not considered environmentally friendly.
- Penetrating Acid Stain – Performed during the polishing process and is not considered environmentally friendly.
- Colored penetrating surface sealers which are also filmforming and thus produce a more solid color – Considered environmentally friendly
Different manufacturers offers different coloring choices to polished concrete customers. Here is the 24 stock colors covering the most common color choices seen in floors today offered by Ameripolish. Custom colors are available upon request. AIC is a certified installer for Ameripolish.
5. How Much Does Polished Concrete Cost
For a fairly smooth floor, that requires only a few levels of grinding, $3 sq. ft. is the basic cost for a polished concrete floor. If the floor requires more in-depth grinding or includes coloring with stains and dyes or other special finish designs, then the price ranges between $3-$8 sq. ft.
Smaller residential floors tend to be a bit higher in price because of the requirement for smaller equipment which will relatively lower work efficiency and special design requirement.
Polished Concrete project cost can vary widely based on factors including concrete condition, job size and location, aggregate exposure, gross level and coloring selection etc. To get an accurate quote for your project, please just CALL US at 904-425-7307 to discuss your project, or schedule an on-site inspection.
6. Expectations and Limitations
Not all concrete is a good candidate for processing and polishing. When working on existing concrete, results are largely dependent on the quality of concrete a contractor is given to work with.
Most existing commercial concrete that is of sufficient strength and finished will allow for excellent results.
Variables such as aggregate, color variations, miscellaneous contaminates, cracks, patterns left by previous floor covering, existing stains, nail holes, patched areas and flatness can affect the final appearance and results.
A slab newly poured based on specifications designed for polished concrete finish will eliminate a significant number of variables and provide improved finish results over an existing finished concrete slab.
7. Frequently Asked Questions
Is Polished Concrete Slippery?
Because of polished concrete’s unique shine and high reflectivity, many people question if it is slippery. Generally speaking, when the concrete is clean and dry, it is generally no more slippery than plain concrete surfaces. In fact, polished concrete tends to be less slippery than waxed linoleum or polished marble.
There are also anti-slip conditioners that can be applied to a polished concrete floor for extra protection against accidents. The special additives in these products are designed to improve traction and make wet surfaces safer. No additional cleaning is required, but normally it needs to be reapplied periodically.
How Do I Maintain Polished Concrete?
Maintenance for polished concrete is very minimal, however, regular cleaning is still needed. Regular care includes occasional damp mopping to remove dust or grit. You may also consider use some neutral cleaner and conditioner that cleans the surface, and leaves behind a dirt-resistant film.
Except for high traffic areas, polished concrete will keep its shine for years. If it should ever dull, it is easy to restore. Sometimes simply buffing the floor with a commercial polishing compound will do the trick. If more touch-up is necessary, the floors can be lightly re-polished with a fine-grit abrasive.